Carbohydrates foods are cheap and are therefore consumed in large quantities. 1g of carbohydrates releases 17kJ of energy.
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
They are made up of simple sugars.
If the carbohydrate is composed of:
One sugar it is called a MONOSACCHARIDE.
Two sugars it is called a DISACCHARIDE.
Three sugars it is called a POLYSACCHARIDE.
|Glucose (Fruits and Honey)||Starch (Roots)|
|Fructose (Fruits and Honey)||Fiber -Cellulose (Vegetables)|
|Galaxies (Milk with glucose)||Dextrin (Formed when Dry heat is applied)|
|Pectin (Fruit acids)|
|Sucrose (Table sugar, Sugar cane)|
|Maltose (Produced during digestion or fermentation)|
|Grain of Barley
Husks of cereal
Shells of nuts
Formed when dry heat acts on starch
Forms jelly when cooked with sugar and water
Digested carbohydrate, mainly glucose, is absorbed into the blood capillaries of the villa of the small intestine. It is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where it is dealt with in several ways:
Glucose may be oxidized to provide the chemical energy to form ATP.
Some glucose may remain in the blood to maintain normal blood glucose.
Some glucose if in excess will be converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and skeletal muscles.
Carbohydrates in excess of that required will be converted into fat and stored in the adipose tissue.
Carbohydrates supply energy to the body
Carbohydrates are broken down to their simplest form (glucose) and transported to the cells.
In the cells the glucose is broken to supply water and energy.
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle for energy supplies.
Excess glucose is stored as fat in the adipose tissue.
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